You must file a charge of discrimination with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) before you can file a lawsuit under Title VII — and there are strict time limits for doing both.
Race discrimination in employment is prohibited by Title VII and by Section 1981 of the Civil Rights Act of 1866. If you’re facing workplace race discrimination, you should consult with a lawyer to discuss your options. A lawyer can help you assess your situation and figure out the best way to proceed — and, if you want to file a lawsuit under Title VII, a lawyer can make sure you meet all the relevant statutes of limitations to protect your right to sue.
Statutes Prohibiting Race Discrimination
There are two federal statutes that prohibit race discrimination: Title VII and Section 1981. Most states also prohibit race discrimination in employment.
Although both statutes were originally passed to protect historically disadvantaged groups from discrimination (particularly African Americans), both protect people of all races from discrimination.
- Title VII was passed as part of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. It prohibits discrimination in employment on the basis of protected characteristics such as race, color, and national origin.
- Section 1981 was passed in 1866, during the Reconstruction Era after the Civil Was. It declared African Americans to be citizens of the United States, entitled to enjoy the rights previously reserved to white men. These rights include the right to make and enforce contracts, which courts have interpreted to include the right to work free of race discrimination.
If You Are Facing Discrimination
If you believe you are being discriminated against because of your race, you should talk to an experienced lawyer right away. A lawyer can assess your situation and help you decide what to do. If you are still employed, the lawyer can help you navigate your company’s complaint process and investigation. If you’ve lost your job, the lawyer can try to negotiate a settlement with your employer. If you plan to file a lawsuit, a lawyer can help you decide which statute to sue under and how best to proceed.
If you decide to sue under Title VII, you will first have to file a charge of discrimination with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), the federal agency that interprets and enforces antidiscirmination laws. Filing a charge is a legal prerequisite to filing a lawsuit. You must file a charge within 180 days of the discriminatory act; this time limit is extended to 300 days if your state or local government also has a law prohibiting race discrimination (as noted above, most do).
Once you file your charge, the EEOC will decide how to handle it. The agency might dismiss your charge, if it believes it lacks jurisdiction over your case for some reason. Most often, the agency conducts an investigation. It may also try to mediate a settlement between you and your employer. In very rare cases, it might even decide to litigate the case on your behalf. When the agency finishes processing your charge, it will issue you a right to sue letter, letting you know that you may file a lawsuit. Once you get the letter, you have only 90 days to file your case in court.
If you decide to sue under Section 1981, you don’t have to file a charge of discrimination with the EEOC. Instead, you can proceed straight to court. And, you have four year from the date of the discriminatory act to file your lawsuit. In fact, some employees decide to use Section 1981 precisely because of this longer time limit, especially if they have missed the deadline for filing an EEOC charge.